Learning Reproduction in Farm Animals

10-Postpartum Reproduction


Learning Objectives:

Postpartum Period: Time from parturition to 1st fertile estrus. Factors Affecting the Postpartum Period:
  1. Body condition pre and postpartum

  2.  
     
  3. Plane of Nutrition

  4.  
     
  5. Lactation stress

  6.  
     
  7. Suckling stimulus

  8.  
     
  9. Photoperiod

  10.  
     
  11. Temperature

  12.  
     
  13. Presence of male

  14.  

     
     

 
OSU Condition Scoring System
Score
Description
Photograph
1
Severely emaciated. All ribs and bone structure easily visible 
and physically weak. Animals have difficulty standing or 
walking. No external fat present by sight or touch.
2
Emaciated. Similar to 1, but not weakened.
3
Very thin. No palpable or visible fat on ribs or brisket. 
Individual muscles in the hind quarter are easily visible and 
spinuse processes are very apparent.
4
Thin. Ribs and pin bones are easily visible and fat is not 
apparent by palpation on ribs or pin bones. Individual 
muscles in the hind quarter are apparent.
5
Moderate. Ribs are less apparent than in a 4 and have less than 
1/2 cm of fat on them. Last 2-3 ribs can be felt easily (less 
then .5 cm of fat). No fat in the brisket. At least 1 cm of fat 
can be palpated on pinbones. Individual muscles in hind quarter 
are not apparent.
6
Good. Smooth appearance throughtout. Some fat deposition in brisket. 
Individual ribs are not visible. About 2 cm of fat on the 
pin bones and about 1 cm of fat on last 2-3 ribs.
7
Very Good. Brisket is full, tailhead and pin bones have protruding 
deposits of fat on them. Back appears square due to fat. Indentation 
over spinal cord due to fat on each side. One to two cm of fat on last 
2-3 ribs.
8
Back is very square. Brisket is distended with fat. Large protruding 
deposits of fat on tailhead and pin bones. Neck is thick. Three to four 
cm of fat on last 2-3 ribs. Large indentation over spinal cord.
9
Very obese. Description of 8 taken to greater extremes.
 

Nutrition of Beef Cows

Estrus Response
 
 
 

Pregnancy Response:
 
 
 

Calf Performance:
 
 
 

Suckling Effects: Inhibits FSH and LH release.

Sows - Normal weaning 15-35 days postpartum
 
 
Weaning  
Days Postpartum
Days to
Estrus
Litter
Size
10 12 10.5
15-21 7 11.5
24 5 11.7
 
 
 

Cattle - Postpartum interval to 1st estrus.

Endocrine changes for 1st postpartum estrus in cattle: Management techniques to shorten the postpartum interval:  
Table 1.  Effect of once-daily suckling on reproductive performance of  
Brahman x Hereford heifers and their calves.
Treatment
Criteria Normal Suckling Once-daily Suckling
Number of cows 16 19
Percentage of cows in estrus by  
   90 days after calving
6 74
Interval from calving to first  
   estrus (days)
168±14 69±6
Weaning weights of calves (lbs) 323±11 324±10
Adapted from Randel et al, 1981. J. Anim. Sci. 54:755-757
 
 
 
 
Hereford Heifers Weaned at 6-8 weeks Not weaned
Number of heifers 31 32
Days from calving  
to conception
70
90.5
% heifers pregnant  
during breeding season
97
59
7 month weaning weights
374 lbs
372 lbs
Adapted from Lusby et al., 1981 J. Anim. Sci. 53:1193-1197
 


Illustrated Notes

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