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Animal Science Faculty

Mike Roberts

R. Michael Roberts

Curators' Professor

Molecular Biochemistry

158 Animal Science Research Center
Division Of Animal Sciences
Columbia, MO 65211


B.A. (Botany) Oxford University, England, 1962

D. Phil. Oxford University, England, 1965

Honors and Awards

  • State Scholar, Oxford University, England, 1959-62.
  • Christopher Welch Scholar, Oxford University, England, 1962-65.
  • Senior Research Fellowship, United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, 1968-69.
  • Research Career Development Award from the U.S. Public Health Service, 1972-1977.
  • Fellowship, World Health Organization, Cambridge, England, Spring 1977.
  • Senior Fellowship, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, University of Manchester, England. Summer 1977.
  • First Prize, Electrofocus/78 Competition sponsored by LKB Instruments, Inc., for Advancement of Knowledge Applications & Techniques of Electrofocusing; Atlanta, Georgia. Sigma Chi, Distinguished Faculty Award, University of Florida, April 1984.
  • Basic Science Research Prize, College of Medicine, University of Florida, May 1984.
  • Vice-Chairman, Gordon Conference on Mammalian Genital Tract, Plymouth State College, July 6-11, 1986.
  • Chairman, Gordon Conference on Reproductive Tract Biology, Brewster Academy, July 4- 8, 1988.
  • Research Award, Society for Study of Reproduction, July, 1990.
  • NIH MERIT Award, 1990-2000.
  • 1990 Sydney A. Asdell Lecturer, Cornell University.
  • United States Department of Agriculture Distinguished Scientist, 1992.
  • Amoroso Lecturer, Society for the Study of Fertility, 1994.
  • Milstein Award, International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research, 1995.
  • 1st Recipient, Research Award, College of Agri., Food & Natural Resources, University of Missouri-Columbia, 1995.
  • Member, National Academy of Sciences, elected 1996. The Alexander vom Humboldt Award for Agriculture, 1996.
  • President's Award for Research and Creativity, University of Missouri system, 1997.
  • Foreign Specialist, National Institute of Animal Industry, Japan, 1998.
  • Docteur Honoris Causa (Honorary Doctorate) from the University of Liege, Belgium, 1998.
  • A. Nalbandov Memorial Lecturer, University of Illinois, 2000.
  • Wolf Prize for Agriculture 2003;For the discoveries of interferon-tau and other pregnancy- associated proteins, which clarified the biological mystery of signaling between the embryo and mother to maintain pregnancy.
  • Larry Ewing Memorial Lecturer, John Hopkins University School of Public Health (2003) University of Missouri Faculty/Alumni Award 2005 Scientific American Top 50 List (Dec) 2005 Acknowledged for accomplishment in researchand technological leadership.
  • Patent Recipient Awardee-University of Missouri-Columbia Technology Transfer Showcase 2006.
  • Carl G. Hartman Award-Recognition of a research career and scholarly activities in the field of reproductive biology 2006 .

Society Memberships

  • American Society of Biological Chemists
  • Society for Study of Reproduction
  • American Society for Advancement of Science
  • International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research
  • Endocrine Society
  • American Society for Cell Biology

Refereed Publications (Last 10 years)

  • Smith, G.W., Gentry, P.C., Roberts, R.M. and Smith, M.F. (1996) Ontogeny and regulation of luteinizing hormone receptor messenger ribonucleic acid within the ovine corpus luteum. Biol. Reprod. 54, 76-83.
  • Xie, S., Nagel, R.J., Green, J., Beckers, J-F. and Roberts, R.M. (1996) Trophoblast-specific processing and phosphorylation of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein-1 in day 15 to 25 sheep placenta. Biol. Reprod. 54, 122-129.
  • Smith, G.W., Gentry, P.C., Long, D.K., Smith, M.F. and Roberts, R.M. (1996) Differential gene expression within the ovine corpus luteum: identification of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine as a major secretory product of small but not large luteal cells. Endocrinol. 137, 755-762.
  • Liu, L., Leaman, D.W., Bixby, J.A. and Roberts, R.M. (1996) A type I ovine interferon with limited similarity to IFN-a, IFN-w and IFN-t: gene structure, biological properties and unusual species specificity. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1294, 55-62.
  • Liu, L. and Roberts, R.M. (1996) Silencing of the gene for the b subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin by the embryonic transcription factor Oct-3/4. J. Biol. Chem. 271, 16683-16689.
  • Liu, L., Leaman, D.W. and Roberts, R.M. (1996) The interferon-t genes of the giraffe, a nonbovid species. J. Interferon & Cytokine Res. 16, 949-951.
  • 199a. Roberts, R.M. (1996) Interferon-t and Pregnancy. J interferon & cytokine Res 16, 271-273.
  • Guruprasad, K., Blundell, T.L., Xie, S., Green, J., Szafranska, B., Nagel, R.J., McDowell, K., Baker, B.B. and Roberts, R.M. (1996) Comparative modeling and analysis of amino substitutions suggests that the family of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins includes both active and inactive aspartic proteinases. Protein Eng. 9, 849-856.
  • Kubisch, H.M., Larson, M.A., Eichen, P.A., Wilson, J.M. and Roberts, R.M. (1997) Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer by perivitelline microinjection of mouse, rat, and cow embryos. Biol. Reprod. 56, 119-124.
  • Niswender, K.D., Li, J., Powell, M.R., Loos, K.R., Roberts, R.M., Keisler, D.H. and Smith, M.F. (1997) Effects of variants of interferon-t with mutations near the carboxyl terminus on luteal life span in sheep. Biol. Reprod. 56, 214-220.
  • Duffy, J.Y., Stallings-Mann, M.L., Trout, W.E., Roberts, R.M. (1997) Expression of a Plasmin/Trypsin Kunitz Inhibitor by Pig Trophoblast. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 46, 443-449.
  • Smith, G.W., Gentry, P.C., Bao, B., Long, D.K., Roberts, R.M., and Smith, M.F. (1997) Control of extracellular matrix remodeling within ovarian tissues: localization and regulation of gene expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 within the ovine corpus luteum. J. Reprod. & Fert. 110, 107-114.
  • Liu, L., Leaman, D., Villalta, M., Roberts, R.M. (1997) Silencing of the Gene for the a-Subunit of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin by the Embryonic Transcription Factor Oct-3/4. Mol. Endocrinol. 11, 1651-1658.
  • Han, C.-S., Mathialagan, N., Klemann, S., and Roberts, R.M. (1997) Molecular Cloning of Ovine and Bovine Type I Interferon Receptor Subunits from Uteri, and Endometrial Expression of Messenger Ribonucleic Acid for Ovine Receptors During the Estrous Cycle and Pregnancy. Endocrinol. 138, 4757-4767.
  • Xie, S., Green, J., Bao, B., Beckers, J-F, Valdez, K., Hakami, L., Roberts, R.M. (1997) Multiple Pregnancy-Associated Glycoproteins Are Secreted by Day 100 Ovine Placental Tissue. Biol. Reprod. 57, 1384-1393.
  • Xie, Sancai. Green. J., Bixby, J.B., Szafranska, B., DeMartini, J.C., Hecht, S., Roberts, R.M. (1997) The diversity and evolutionary relationships of the pregnancy-associated glycoproteins, an aspartic proteinase subfamily consisting of many trophoblast-expressed genes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 12809-12816.
  • Alexenko, A.P., Leaman, D.W., Li, J., and Roberts, R.M. (1997) The antiproliferative and antiviral properties of IFN-t variants in human cells. J. Interfer. Cytokine Res. 17, 769-779.
  • Ealy, A. D., Green, A. G., Alexenko, A., Keisler, D., and Roberts, R.M. (1998) Different ovine interferon-tau genes are not expressed identically and their protein products display different activities. Biol. Reprod. 58, 566-573.
  • Kubisch, H. Michael, Larson, M. and Roberts, R.M. (1998) Relationship between age of blastocyst formation and interferon-t secretion by in vitro-derived bovine embryos. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 49, 254-260.
  • Ealy, A.D., Alexenko, A.P., Keisler, D.H., and Roberts, R.M. (1998) Loss of the signature six carboxyl amino acid tail from ovine interferon-tau does not affect biological activity. Biol. Reprod. 58, 1463-1468.
  • Ezashi, T., Ealy, A.D., Ostrowski, M.C., and Roberts, R.M. (1998) Control of interferon-t gene expression by Ets-2. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 95, 7882-7887.
  • Roberts, R.M., Liu, L., Guo, Q., Leaman, D., Bixby, J. (1998) The Evolution of the Type I Interferons. J. Interferon & Cytokine Res. 18, 805-816.
  • Green, J., Xie, S., Szafranska., B, Gan, X., Newman, A., McDowell, K., and Roberts, R.M. (1999) Identification of a New Aspartic Proteinase expressed by the outer chorionic cell layer of the equine placenta. Biol. Reprod. 60, 1069-1077.
  • Roberts, R.M., Ealy, A.D., Alexenko, A.P., Han, C.-S., and Ezashi, T. (1999) Trophoblast Interferons. Placenta 20, 259-264.
  • Winkelman, G.L., Roberts, R.M., Peterson, A.J., Alexenko, A.P., and Ealy, A.D. (1999) Identification of the Expressed Forms of Ovine Interferon-Tau in the Periimplantation conceptus: Sequence Relationships and Comparative Biological Activities. Biol. Reprod. 61, 1592-1600.
  • Alexenko, A.P., Ealy, A.D., and Roberts, R.M. (1999) The Cross-Species Antiviral Activities of Different IFN-t Subtypes on Bovine, Murine and Human Cells: Contradictory Evidence for Therapeutic Potential. J. Interferon & Cytokine Res. 19, 1335-1341.
  • Green, J.A., Xie, S., Quan, X., Bao, B., Gan, X., Mathialagan, N., Beckers, J.-F., and Roberts, R.M. (2000) Pregnancy-Associated Bovine and Ovine Glycoproteins Exhibit Spatially and Temporally Distinct Expression Patterns During Pregnancy. Biol. Reprod. 62, 1624-1631.
  • Hughes, A.L., Green, J.A., Garbayo J.M., and Roberts, R.M. (2000) Adaptive diversification within a large family of recently duplicated, placentally expressed genes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 97, 3319-3323.
  • Hughes, A.L., and Roberts R.M. (2000) Independent origin of IFN-a and IFN-β in birds and mammals. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. 20, 737-740.
  • Garbayo, J.A., Green, J.A., Manikkam, M., Beckers, J.F., Kiesling, D.O., Ealy, A.D., Roberts, R.M. (2000) Caprine pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG): Their cloning, expression and evolutionary relationship to other PAG. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 57, 311-322.
  • Alexenko, A.P., Ealy, A.D., Bixby, J.A., & Roberts, R.M. (2000) A classification for the interferon-τ. J. Interferon & Cytokine Res. 20, 817-822.
  • Do, H.J., Kim, J.H., Abeydeera, L.R., Han, Y.M., Green, J., Roberts, R.M., Matteri, R.L., Day, B.N., and Prather, R.S. (2001) Expression of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 and 2 genes in in vitro-, in vivo- and parthenogenetically-derived preimplantation pig embryos. Zygote 9, 245-250.
  • Kubisch, H.M., Larson, M.A., Ealy, A.D., Murphy, C.N., Roberts R.M. (2001) Genetic and environmental determinants of interferon-t secretion by in vivo- and in vitro-derived bovine blastocysts. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 66, 1-13.
  • Kubisch, H.M., Larson, M.A., Kiesling, D.O., Roberts, R.M. (2001) Control of interferon-t secretion by in vitro-derived bovine blastocysts during extended culture and outgrowth formation. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 58, 390-397.
  • Han C. -S., Chen Y., Roberts R.M. (2001) Antiviral activities of the soluble extracellular domains of Type 1 Interferon Receptors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 98, 6138-6143.
  • Ealy, A.D., Larson S.F., Liu L., Alexenko A.P., Winkleman G.L., Kubisch H.M., Bixby J.A., Roberts R.M. (2001) Polymorphic forms of expressed bovine interferon-tau genes: Relative transcript abundance during early placental development, promoter sequences of genes and biological activity of protein products. Endocrinol. 142, 2906-2915.
  • Chen, X., Rosenfeld C.S., Roberts R.M., Green J.A. (2001) An Aspartic Proteinase expressed in the Yolk Sac and neonatal stomach of the mouse. Biol. Reprod. 65, 1092-1101.
  • Szafranska, B., Miura R., Ghosh D., Ezashi T., Xie S., Roberts R.M., Green J.A. (2001) The Gene for Porcine Pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 2 (poPAG2): Its structural Organization and Analysis of its Promoter. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 60, 137-146.
  • Larson, M.A., Kimura K., Kubisch H.M., Roberts R.M. (2001) Sexual dimorphism among bovine embryos in their ability to make the transition to expanded blastocyst and in the expression of the signaling molecule IFN-t. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 98, 9677-9682.
  • Ezashi T., Ghosh D., Roberts R.M. (2001) Repression of Ets-2 induced transactivation of the interferon-tau promoter by Oct-4. Mol. Cell. Biol. 21, 7883-7891.
  • Rosenfeld, C.S., Han C.S., Alexenko A.P., Spencer T.E., Roberts R.M. (2002) The Expression of interferon receptor subunits, IFNAR1 and IFNAR2, in the Ovine Uterus. Biol Reprod. 6, 847-853.
  • Ghosh, D., Ezashi T., Ostrowski M.C., Roberts R.M. (2003) A central role for Ets-2 in the transcriptional regulation and cyclic AMP-responsiveness of the human chorionic gonadotropin-beta subunit gene. Mol. Endocrinol, 17, 11-26.
  • MacLean II, J.A., Chakrabarty, A., Xie, S., Bixby, J.A., Roberts, R.M. and Green J.A. (2003) A family of Kunitz proteins from trophoblast: Expression of the trophoblast Kunitz domain proteins (TKDP) in cattle and sheep. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 65, 30-40.
  • Roberts, R.M., Ezashi, T., Rosenfeld, C.S., Ealy, A.D., and Kubisch, H.M. (2003) Evolution of the Interferon-t genes and their promoters, and maternal-trophoblast interactions in control of their expression. Reproduction, Suppl 61, 239-251.
  • Rosenfeld, C.S., Grimm K., Livingston K., Brokman A., Lamberson W.E., Roberts R.M. (2003) Striking variation in the sex ratio of pups born to mice according to whether maternal diet is high in fat or carbohydrate. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA100, 4628-4632.
  • Hughes, A.L., Green J.A., Piontkivska H., Roberts R.M. (2003) Aspartic proteinase phylogeny and the origin of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins. Mol. Biol. Evol. 20, 1940-45.
  • Green, J.A, Parks, T.E., Avalle, P.A., Teluga, B.P., McLain, A.L., Peterson, A.J., McMillan W., Mathialagan, N., Hook, R.R., Xie, S., Roberts, R.M.. (2005) The establishment of an ELISA for the detection of preganancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG’S) in the serum of pregnant cow and heifers. Theriogenology. 63, 1481-503
  • Kimura, K., Spate, L.D. Green, M.P.and Roberts, R.M. (2004) Effects of Oxidative Stress and Inhibitors of the Pentose Phosphate Pathway on Sexually Dimorphic Production of IFN-τ by Bovine Blastocysts. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 68, 88-95.
  • Kimura, K., Spate, L.D., Green, M.P., Murphy, C.N., Seidel Jr , G.E., Roberts, R.M. (2004) Sexual Dimorphism in Interferon-tau Production by In vivo-Derived Bovine Embryos. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 67, 193-199.
  • Roberts, R.M, Ezashi, T., Das, P. (2004) Trophoblast Gene Expression: transcription factors in the specification of early trophoblast. Reprod. Biol. & Endocrinology. 2, 47.
  • Ezashi, T., Roberts, R.M. (2004) Regulation of Interferon-t (IFN-t) Gene Promoters by Growth Factors that
  • Target the Ets-2 Composite Enhancer: A Possible Model for Maternal Control of IFN-t Production by the Conceptus during Early Pregnancy. Endocrinology 145, 4452-60.
  • Maclean II, J.A., Roberts, R.M. and Green, J.A. (2004) Atypical Kunitz-Type Serine Proteinase Inhibitors Produced by the Ruminant Placenta. Biology of Reproduction 71, 455-463.
  • Wang, S. and Roberts, R.M. (2004) Interaction of Stress-Activated Protein Kinase-Interacting Protein-1 with the Interferon Receptor Subunit IFNAR2 in Uterine Endometrium. Endocrinology 145, 5820-5831.
  • Roberts RM. (2004). Impact of Maternal Diet on Reproductive Outcome: Foreword. Biol Reprod. 71, 1045.
  • Rosenfeld, C. S. and Roberts, R.M. (2004). "Maternal Diet and Other Factors Affecting Offspring Sex Ratio: A Review." Biol Reprod 71, 1063-1070.
  • Wang, S. and Roberts, R.M. (2005) The evolution of the Sin1 gene product, a little known protein implicated in stress responses and type I interferon signaling in vertebrates. BMC Evol Biol. 7;5(1):13
  • Ghosh D, Sachdev, S., Hannink M, Roberts, R.M. (2005) Coordinate regulation of basal and cAMP-activated expression of hCG{alpha} by Ets-2 and CREB. Mol Endocrinol. 1049-1066.
  • Wooding, F.B.P., Roberts, R.M. and Green, J.A. (2005) Light and electron microscope immunocytochemical studies of the distribution of pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAGs) throughout pregnancy in the cow: possible functional implications. Placenta.Nov. 26(10):807-27.
  • Ezashi T., Das P., Roberts R.M. (2005) Low O2 tensions and the prevention of differentiation of human embryonic stem cells. PNAS 102, 4783-4788.
  • Roberts, R.M. (2005) Embryo culture conditions: What embryos like best. Endocrinology 146, 2140-2141.
  • Green, M.P., L.D. Spate, Bixby, J.A.. Ealy, A.D Roberts, R.M. (2005) A Comparison of the Anti-Luteolytic Activities of Recombinant Ovine Interferon-Alpha and –Tau in Sheep. Biol Reprod 73, 1087-1093
  • Kimura, K, Spate, L.D., Green, M.P., Roberts, R.M. (2005) Effects of D-glucose concentration, D-fructose, and inhibitors of enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway on the development and sex ration of bovine blastocysts. Molecular Reproduction and Development. 72:2, 201-207.
  • Chen Y Green J.A. Antoniou Ealy A.E. Mathialagan N.P., Walker A.M., Avalle M.P., Rosenfeld C.S., Hearne, L., Roberts R.M. (2006) Effect of Interferon tau Administration on Endometrium of Nonpregnant Ewes: A Comparison with Pregnant Ewes. Endocrinology, 147:2127-2137.
  • Chakrabarty, A, Green J.A., Roberts R.M. (2006) Origin and evolution of the TKDP gene family. GENE, 373. 35-43
  • Chakrabarty A., MacLean J, Roberts R.M. Hughes, A Green, J.A. (2006) Rapid Evolution of the trophoblast Kunitz domain proteins (TKDPs) – A multi-gene family expressed in the trophoblast of ruminants. J. Mol. Evol. 63: 274-282
  • Whyte, J J.,Roberts R.M., Rosenfeld, C.S. (2006) Fluorescent in situ hybridization for sex chromosome determination before and after fertilization in mice. Theriogenology, 2007 Jan 8 (Epub ahead of print)
  • Roberts, R.M., Yong, H.J., Smith, S. (2006) What Drives the Formation of Trophectoderm During Early Embryonic Development? J of Reprod & Dev, 52, S87-S97.
  • Ezashi, T., Das. P., Roberts R.M. (2006) Regulation of IFN-tau gene expression by uterine factors: interaction between the conceptus and maternal environment during early pregnancy in cattle and sheep. J of Reprod & Dev, 52, S99-S109.

Chapters in Books and Invited Reviews (last 10 years)

  • Roberts, R.M. (1996) Interferon-t and Pregnancy. Milstein Award Lecture, Annual Meeting of Soc. Interferon & Cytokine Res, Nov. 6, 1995, Baltimore, MD. J. Interferon & Cytokine Res.16, 271-273.
  • Roberts, R.M. and Liu, L. (1996) Interferon-w. In: B.B. Aggarwal and J.U. Gutterman (eds.) Human Cytokines, Handbook for Basic and Clinical Research, Vol. II, Chapter 9. Blackwell Sciences, Cambridge, MA, pp 168-177.
  • Roberts, R.M. (1996) Interferons as hormones of pregnancy. In: J. Sengupta, D. Ghosh (eds.) Cellular and Molecular Signaling in Reproduction, New Age International Publishers, New Delhi, pp 187-194.
  • Roberts, R.M., Liu, L., Alexenko, A. (1997) New and atypical families of Type I interferons in mammals: comparative functions, structures and evolutionary relationships. Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. & Mol. Biol. 56, 287-326.
  • Green, Jonathan A., Xie, S., and Roberts, R.M. (1998) Pepsin-related molecules secreted by trophoblast. Reviews of Reproduction 3, 62-69.
  • Green, Jonathan, Xie, S., Gan, X., and Roberts, R.M. (1998) An aspartic proteinase expressed in the equine placenta. Aspartic Proteinases MNG James (ed). Plenum Press, New York. pp 162-167.
  • Roberts, R.M., Xie, S., and Green, J. (1998) Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins. Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes F. Woessner, N. Rawlings, A. Barrett (eds). Academic Press, San Diego, California. pp 911-914.Green, J., Xie, S., and Roberts, R.M. (1998) Horse placental aspartic proteinase. Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes F. Woessner, N. Rawlings, A. Barrett (eds). Academic Press, San Diego, California. pp 914-915.
  • Liu, L., Leaman, D., and Roberts, R.M. (1999) Possible Role of the Transcription Factor Oct-3/4 in Control of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Expression. Embryo Implantation: Molecular, Cellular and Clinical Aspects DD Carson (ed). Springer-Verlag, New York, New York. pp 261-270.
  • Ezashi, T., and Roberts, R.M. (2000) Yeast One-Hybrid System: A Genetic System to Identify DNA-Binding Proteins. Yeast Hybrid Technologies L. Zhu, G. J. Hannon (eds). Eaton Publishing, Natick, Massachutes, pp 177-195.
  • Roberts, R.M. (2001) The Place of Farm Species in the New Genomics World of Reproductive Biology. Biol. Reprod. 64, 409-417.
  • Roberts, R.M. (2001) Making the Case for Productivity. Agbioforum 3, Special Issue: Understanding the Differences in US-EU Biotech Regulation. N. Kalaitzandonakes (ed).
  • Rosenfeld, C.S., Roberts, R.M., Lubahn, D.B. (2001) Estrogen Receptor- and Aromatase Deficient Mice Provide Insight into the Roles of Estrogen within the Ovary and Uterus. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 59, 336-346.
  • Roberts, R.M. (2001) National Bovine Genomics Projects: Present Status, Future Directions, and why they are important. Factors Affecting Calf Crop: Biotechnology of Reproduction, (Eds: M.J. Fields, J.V. Yelich, R.S. Sand) CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. pp 165-175.
  • Rosenfeld, C.S., Wagner, J.S., Roberts, R.M., Lubahn, D.B. (2001) Intraovarian actions of Oestrogen. J. Reprod. Fertil. 122, 215-226.
  • Roberts, R.M. (2004) Interferon-t. Encyclopedia of Endocrine Diseases. L. Martini (ed). Elsevier Academic Press. London.
  • Green, M.P. and Roberts, R.M. (2004) Pregnancy Recognition and Signaling. Encyclopedia of Animal Science. (eds: W.G. Pond & A.W. Bell) Marcel Dekker, N.Y. In Press.
  • Green, J.A., and Roberts R.M. (2004) Pepsin F. In Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes, Second Edition (A.J. Barrett, N.D. Rawlings, and J.F. Woessner, Jr., eds) Elsevier Academic Press, London.
  • Roberts R.M. , Xie, S., Green, J.A. (2004) Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins. In Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes, Second Edition (A.J. Barrett, N.D. Rawlings, and J.F. Woessner, Jr., eds) Elsevier Academic Press, London.
  • Green A J, and Roberts, R. M. (2006). Establishment of an ELISA for the Detection of Native Bovine Pregnancy-Associated Glycoproteins Secreted by Trophoblast Binucleate Cells. In Soares, M., and Hunt J.S. Placenta and Trophoblast: Methods and Protocols, Vol II. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
  • Roberts R.M., Ezashi, T., Westfall, S., Sachev, S., Hannink, M. (2006) Epigentics and Embryonic Stem Cell. In Epigenetics: Principles, Protocols and Practice (ed. JL Xue) China: SSMPF Publishing, pp 355-372


Longman’s Publishers, England, Plant Cell Structure and Metabolism. This is under joint authorship with J. Hall and T. Flowers. (First edition, 1974) Second edition (1982) This book has also been translated into Japanese, Polish and Italian.

Yokendo Ltd Publishers, Japan, Cloned Animal and Placentation. Eds: R. Michael Roberts, R. Yanagimachi, T. Kariya, K. Hashizume. 2000.

The National Academies Press, Washington DC, Animal Biotechnology Science-Based Concerns. Coauthor, National Research Council of the National Academies. 2002.

The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., Animal Care & Management at the National Zoo. Chair and Co-author, National Research Council of the National Academies, 2004.


  • “Use of interferons of the alpha family to enhance fertility in mammals” (with P.J. Hansen, W.W. Thatcher and K. Imakawa co-inventors). U.S. Patent No Filed 3/04/88.
  • “Compositions and Methods for early pregnancy diagnosis” U.S. Patent No. 6,869,770, March 22 2005.
  • “Early Pregnancy Diagnosis Using PAGS (pregnancy-associated glycoproteins) Mexican Patent 233668, January 10, 2006.

Seminar and Symposium Presentations (Last 10 years)

  • The Maternal-Placental-Fetal Dialogue, International Workshop Sponsored by Science & Technology Agency of Japan, Maui, HI, February 2, 1996. Trophoblast secretory products mediating maternal recognition of pregnancy in ungulate species.
  • AgResearch, Ruakura Agricultural Research Station, Hamilton, NewZealand, February 7, 1996. Maternal recognition of pregnancy and trophectoderm-specific gene expression in cattle and sheep.
  • Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Dept. of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Bronx, NY, May21, 1996. Gene expression in embryonic trophectoderm: interferons and aspartic proteinases at the placental interface.
  • Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mt. Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, May 29, 1996. Gene expression in trophoblast of species with non-invasive implantation.
  • Gordon Research Conference on Reproductive Tract Biology, Plymouth State College, Plymouth, NH, July8, 1996. Gene expression in periimplantation trophectoderm.
  • Gordon Research Conference on Mammalian Gametogenesis and Embryogenesis, Colby-Sawyer College, New Hampshire, August14, 1996. Trophoblast-specific gene expression in pre- and peri-implantation conceptuses in domestic farm species.
  • St. Louis University School of Medicine, Dept. of Pharmacology and Physiological Science, St.Louis, MO, November5, 1996. Interferons and maternal recognition of pregnancy.
  • Washington University, Dept. Ob/Gyn (Grand Rounds), St. Louis, MO, November 6, 1996. Maternal Recognition of pregnancy: What can we learn from comparative approaches?
  • Havemeyer Foundation Workshop on Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy in the Mare, Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic, January 7-9, 1997. Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins of the horse and zebra, aspartic proteinases produced by embryonic trophectoderm.
  • Missouri Veterinary Association, 105th Annual Convention, Lake of the Ozarks, Missouri, January25, 1997. Protein products released by early bovine placenta; importance in maternal recognition of pregnancy and potential value in pregnancy detection.
  • Development Biology Seminar Program, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, March 25, 1997. Evolution of Trophoblast-Specific Gene Expression.
  • MD Anderson Cancer Center, Interdisciplinary Reproductive Biology Group, University of Florida, Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, April 2, 1997. Evolution of Trophoblast-Specific Gene Expression.
  • Monsanto Corporation, Chesterfield, Missouri, September 26, 1997. Pregnancy Associated Glycoproteins.
  • Serono Symposium, Embryo Implantation: Molecular, Cellular and Clinical Aspects, Newport Beach, California, October 6, 1997. Silencing of hCG Alpha and hCG Beta Gene Expression.
  • 18th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Reproductive Immunology. Chicago, IL, May 10, 1998. Interferon-tau: basis of trophoblast-specific expression and evolutionary origins.
  • Departments of Physiology and Ob-Gyn, University of Illinois School of Medicine, Chicago, May 12, 1998. Interferons and maternal recognition of pregnancy.
  • Symposium: Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy: Gainesville and Beyond (In memory of Dr. R. Jeffrey Moffatt), Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, August 12, 1998. Conceptus interferons: an evolutionary perspective.
  • USDA/ARS Annual Reproductive Group. Beltsville, MD, October 16, 1998. Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins: Multigene family of aspartic proteinases expressed in placenta.
  • USDA/ARS; Beltsville, MD. October 16, 1998. Development of an ideal pregnancy test in cattle.
  • Visiting Professor, National Institute of Animal Industry. Presented seminars on IFN-t and pregnancy associated-glycoproteins at four locations in Japan. Japan. October 25-November 6, 1998.
  • Development of the ideal pregnancy test for cattle, University of Liege, Belgium. November 25, 1998.
  • Keynote Speaker: International Workshop on Embryogenesis and Implantation. National Institute of Animal Industry, Japan. Hawaii, HI, February 1-4, 1999. Genomes of farm animal species: A forgotten side of agricultural research and one vital to understanding reproductive processes.
  • Life Sciences Consortium Colloquium. Pennsylvania State University. March 2, 1999. Rapid Evolutionary Changes in the Mechanisms for Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy in Placental Mammals.
  • S.W. Medical School, Dallas Texas. May 7,1999. Pregnancy-Associated Glycoproteins: An Extremely Large, Rapidly Evolving Family of Peptide-Binding Molecules Expressed in Placenta.
  • Dept. of Animal Science Seminar. Michigan State University. May 20, 1999. Variability and Evolution in Mechanisms for Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy.
  • VIIIth International Aspartic Proteinase Conference. Funibal, Madeira, Portugal. September 7-12, 1999. Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs): a large family of aspartic proteinases expressed in placenta of Artiodactyls.
  • Department of Ob/Gyn, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. March 29, 2000. Rapid Functional Evolution of Genes Expressed Specifically in Placenta.
  • Departments of Animal Sciences and Biochemistry. University of Wyoming, Laramie. March 31, 2000. Evolution of Interferon-tau gene function.
  • Life Sciences Symposium. University of Wyoming. April 1, 2000. Post Genomic Biology in Agriculture.
  • 49th Beef Cattle Short Course. Florida Cattle Short Course 2000. Gainesville, Florida. May 3-5, 2000. National Genome Projects: Present Status, Future Directions, Why They are Important.
  • Symposium on US-EU Policy Issues in Animal Production. University of Missouri-Columbia. May 22, 2000. U.S. Perspective.
  • Keynote Speaker, 33rd Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Reproduction. Madison, WI. July 15, 2000. The Place of farm species in the New Genomics World of Reproductive Biology.
  • A Nalbandov Memorial Lecture. University of Illinois, Urbana, November 29, 2000. Future of Reproductive Sciences in the Post Genomic World.
  • AAI Symposium Comparative View of Fetal-Maternal Immunological Interactions. FASEB Annual Meeting, Orlando FL, April 2, 2001. Expression of Interferons by Trophoblast in Ungulates.
  • Department of Physiology, University KUMUS Medical School, Kansas City, Missouri. April 15, 2001. The Evolution of a Reproductive Function among Type I Interferons.
  • Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, MN. June 13, 2001. Evolution of mechanisms for Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy.
  • International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research (ISICR) annual meeting, Cleveland, OH. October 7-11, 2001. Effect of three distinct IFN-tau variants on progression and severity of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice.
  • Reproductive Forum, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX. November 2, 2001. Developmental Control of Interferon-tau Expression.
  • Department of Animal Production/Animal Physiology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, England. November 13, 2001. Developmental control of Interferon-Tau Expression.
  • Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. February 19, 2002. Evolution of the interferon system for a role in maternal recognition of pregnancy.
  • Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Adelaide University, Australia. February 22, 2002. Evolution of the interferon system for a role in maternal recognition of pregnancy.
  • Symposium : Sperm Storage, Sorting and Sexual Dimorphism. Mid West meeting of the American Society of Animal Sciences, Des Moines IA, March 19, 2002. Sexual dimorphism among blastocysts may provide for sex ratio adjustment in the bovine.
  • Department of Biomedical Sciences, Southwest Missouri State University, Springfield, MO. April 11, 2002. Interferons in Disease and Pregnancy.
  • Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. April 16, 2002. The Evolution of Mechanisms of Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy.
  • Mammalian Gametogenesis & Embryogenesis Conference, Connecticut College, New London CT. June 30-July 5, 2002. Mechanisms of Genetic Quality Control: The in utero environment and its influence on sex ratio.
  • Sixth International Symposium on Reproduction in Domestic Ruminants, Crieff, Scotland, UK. August 14-17, 2002. Ovary-uterine-embryo interactions.
  • Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, England, UK. November 15, 2002. Does maternal diet influence the sex of offspring born?
  • Department Cell Biology, University of Southampton, England, UK. November 19, 2002. Does maternal diet influence the sex of offspring born?
  • Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, Tel Aviv, Israel. May 12, 2003. The relationship between diet and sex of offspring.
  • Annual Meeting of the Israel Fertility Association, Tel Aviv, Israel. May 14, 2003. Pregnancy recognition signals and uterine biology.
  • Havemeyer Foundation Workshop, Embryonic and Fetal Nutrition, Ravello, Italy. May 15-18, 2003. Can maternal nutrition influence the sex of offspring?
  • Larry Ewing Memorial Lecture, John Hopkins University, Baltimore MD. October 8-9, 2003. Sexual dimorphism during early embryonic development and the effects of diet on sex of offspring.
  • Keynote Speaker, Kansas IDeA Biomedical Focus Group Symposium, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City KS. November 1, 2003. The Culture of Collaboration.
  • Reproductive Biology Seminar Series, University of Illinois. May 5, 2004. How the diet of the mother affects the sex of her offspring.
  • Missouri. Agriculture Leaders Forum with USDA Undersecretary Bill Hawks, University of Missouri-Columbia. October 12, 2004
  • Advantages of Agriculturally Important Domestic Species as Biomedical Models Workshop, Michigan State University. October 29-31 2004. Are the Domestic Farm Species Redundant as Models in Biomedical Research? Does Mighty Mouse Rule Supreme?
  • International Symposium on Stem Cells: Premises and Promises for Research and Therapeutics. September 18-21, 2005 Mumbai India. Hypoxia and prevention of human embryonic stem cell differentiation
  • Saturday Morning Science Lecture Jan 28, 2006 How Diet Influences Sex of Offsprings.
  • Life Sciences and Society Symposium- Invited Speaker March 8, 2006 Stem Cells: The Upside and Downside of Stem Cell Science
  • Saturday Morning Science Lecture Sept 16, 2006. Stem Cells: Technology Promise and Concern
  • Center for Reproductive Science Workshop, UCSF. October 12, 2006. Embryonic Stem Cells as Models for Trophoblast Differentiation under High and Low Oxygen Conditions.
  • William Woods University Invited Speaker October 24, 2006. Stem Cells: Technology Promise and Concern
  • University of Connecticut Invited Speaker. November 15, 2006. Lineage Commitment to Trophectoderm.
  • 33rd Annual Conference of the Int’l Embryo Transfer Society. Kyoto, Japan. January 10, 2007 Lineage Specification in Mouse.
  • Second Okayama Symposium in Reproductive Biology. Okayama Japan. Jan 11, 2007. IFNT Regulated Genes.